The Paris Agreement is an international agreement adopted by 195 countries in December 2015 to reduce carbon emissions and limit global warming to below 2°C above pre-industrial levels. The development of this agreement was a lengthy process that involved multiple stages of negotiations spanning several years.
The origins of the Paris Agreement can be traced back to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), which was adopted in 1992. The UNFCCC was established to provide a platform for global cooperation to address the issue of climate change. It was the first international agreement to acknowledge the threat of climate change and recognized the need for collective action to mitigate its effects.
In 2010, the Conference of the Parties (COP) to the UNFCCC in Cancun, Mexico, decided to establish a process to develop a new legal agreement on climate change to be adopted in 2015. This decision came after many years of attempts to reach a consensus on a global agreement on climate change.
The initial step towards the development of the Paris Agreement was the submission of Intended Nationally Determined Contributions (INDCs) by each country. These INDCs outlined the steps that each country would take to reduce their carbon emissions. These contributions were the basis of negotiations leading up to the adoption of the Paris Agreement.
The key objective of the Paris Agreement was to limit global warming to below 2°C above pre-industrial levels. To achieve this goal, the agreement called for a significant reduction in greenhouse gas emissions. Each country was required to submit its Nationally Determined Contribution (NDC), outlining its targets and strategies for reducing carbon emissions.
The Paris Agreement was finalized at the twenty-first COP in Paris, France, in 2015. The negotiations leading up to the agreement were highly complex, with all parties seeking to ensure that their national interests were protected.
The adoption of the Paris Agreement was a historic moment as it marked the first time that all nations of the world agreed to take action to mitigate climate change. The agreement became legally binding in November 2016, thirty days after at least 55 countries representing at least 55% of global emissions deposited their instruments of ratification or acceptance.
In conclusion, the Paris Agreement was the result of years of negotiations and discussions involving all nations of the world. The agreement represents a significant milestone in global efforts to mitigate climate change. Its adoption and ratification demonstrate a united global commitment to reducing carbon emissions and limiting the impacts of climate change on the planet.